AA 689  Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell  Guide to Records
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Series AA689/09
Anthropometric data cards from Board for Anthropological Research expeditions and cranial data cards recorded at numerous institutions
Date Range1926 - 1960, Dates in annotations
Quantity258 cm, 47 folders and boxes
ProvenanceDr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Description

THIS SERIES CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
This series can be broken down into eight major sub-series of data cards. The first group, AA 689/9/21, comprises a photocopied report by Walter Edmund Roth (See AA 271), the Northern Protector of Aboriginies (NPA,] containing anthropometric data of individuals from North Queensland, 1898-1900.

The second group, AA 689/9/1, comprises anthropometric data cards copied by Birdsell from the original data recorded by William Lloyd Warner in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, 1926-1927.

The third group, AA 689/9/2-15, comprises copies of anthropological data cards recorded during the Board for Anthropological Research (BAR; see AA 346) expeditions conducted from 1923-1939.

The fourth group, AA 689/9/16 comprises the original anthropological data cards recorded in the field during the Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition, 1938-1939. These have been ordered by Birdsell into genetic classes.

The fifth group, AA 689/9/17, comprises anthropological data cards recorded during the University of California Los Angeles and University of Adelaide Expedition, 1952-1954.

The sixth group, AA 689/9/18, comprises copies of anthropological data cards recorded during the BAR expedition to Bentinck, Mornington and Forsyth Islands, Queensland, 1960.

The seventh group, AA 689/9/19, comprises Australian Aboriginal Cranial data cards.

The eight group, AA 689/9/20, comprises non-Australian Cranial data cards.

Birdsell was a physical anthropologist, interested in theories of race. Language and terms referred to in this inventory reflect both scientific nature of the work and the social era in which they were collected, which my be considered inappropriate or offensive.

Australian Aboriginal groups have been cross referenced with the 'Tindale tribe' index which links to the Catalogue in Tindale's 1974 publication Aboriginal tribes of Australia, their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits and proper names (see AA 338).

Note that a set of data cards once held in the Birdsell collection have been moved to the CP Mountford (see AA 228) collection. These data cards contain information collected from individuals at Groote Eylandt, Yirrakala and Milingimbi in the Northern Territory during Mountford's expedition in April 1948.

ArrangedChronological

Inventory Listing

AA 689/9/1

Copy of William Lloyd Warner's Data Card Series, 1926-1927

 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
This item is a set of anthropometric data cards copied by Birdsell from the original data collected by William Lloyd Warner (1898-1970), an American anthropologist and sociologist. Warner came to Australia to study at the University of Sydney on a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship (1925-1926), then worked in east Arnhem Land (1927-1929) under an Australian National Research Council fellowship. Based at Milingimbi Methodist Mission, Northern Territory, Warner conducted extensive anthropological and sociological research on numerous Australian Aboriginal groups in the area. His anthropometric measurements of 339 Australian Aboriginal people were later analyzed and published by WW Howells (1937). On his return to the USA in 1929, Warner taught anthropology and sociology at Harvard University until 1935. In 1935 Birdsell began working under the direction of EA Hooton at the Department of Anthropology at Harvard University. Birdsell (1993) states that the protocols were made available to himself from Warner, and that he subsequently rearranged the data from their numerical sequence into regional groups, the last two being broadly regionally pooled populations as follows:

  • W-1 Melville and Bathurst Islands
  • W-2 Larrakia [Larakia]
  • W-3 Worgait [Wogait]
  • W-4 Berinken [Magatige]
  • W-5 Central Interior
  • W-6 north-eastern

Data was collected from individuals at the following places in the Northern Territory: Kahlin Compound; Fanny Bay Prison; Darwin Compound; Darwin; Crocodile Islands.

The cards contain the following information: [the individual's subject] Number, Sex; Age; Date; Place; Race; Tribe; Race of Father; Race of Mother; Name; Father or Mother of; Brother or Sister of; Son or Daughter of; Anthropological Measurements numbering 28; Vital Statistics; Remarks and Observations on the reverse side of the card. Marital status was recorded also noted on the front top right hand side. Not all data is recorded for each field. Hair samples are glued to the reverse side of the some of the data cards and have been re-housed to preserve their integrity. The cards measure 20.5 x 12.5cm.

It appears that these cards are in Birdsell's hand.

    See also the 'Warner's Australians. Raw Data for Males' (AA 689/1/12) which contains Birdsell's transcriptions of Warner's anthropometric data of Australian Aborigines from data cards (see AA 689/9/1) and includes notes made in relation to the data.

    Tindale Tribes: Larakia; Larakia; Wogait; Magatige; Magatige.

    References:

  • Mulvaney, DJ 1990, 'Warner, William Lloyd (1898 - 1970)' in Australian Dictionary of Biography Volume 12, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 386-387.
  • Warner, WL 1964, (first published 1937) A Black Civilization: A Social Study of an Australian Tribe. Harpers & Row, New York.
  • Birdsell, JB 1993, Microevolutionary patterns in Aboriginal Australia: a gradient analysis of clines. Oxford University Press, New York, p.26.
  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/1
Date Range c. 1926 - c. 1927, dates of expedition
Quantity 4.5 cm, 1 grey Albox folder
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/1
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/2-15

Copies of Board for Anthropological Research data cards, 1923-1937.

 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
These item contains copies of the anthropological data cards recorded during expeditions by the Board for Anthropological Research (BAR, see AA 346).

In the first instance the original BAR anthropological cards should be consulted, as in most cases the copies are incomplete in their data and may not contain the complete sequence of cards..

Several different types of anthropological cards were made over the years, for details of the contents of the cards refer to BAR (see AA 346/4). Many of these cards contain the following types of information: [an individual's subject] Number; Native name; European name; Sex; Age; Date; Locality; Tribe; Totem; Anthropological Measurements and physical observations. The reverse of the card contains the following information: relationships, physical indices and observational notes.

Note that within any given series the amount of data recorded varies from card to card.

Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological data cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of copies of these photographs. Where there is a corresponding copy of sociological photographs in the Birdsell collection these have been noted.

  1. 'South Australian Natives' data cards.
    Cards are numbered: SA1-SA16; SA unnumbered [one card]; SR1- SR3 [Swan Reach]; PP1-PP7 [Point Pearce]. This item contains a total of 34 cards, 33 data cards and a one title card. Date Range: September 1923 - July 1936. These copies are incomplete sets of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/2-5).
  2. Expedition A, Mount Eba, South Australia, 1923.
    Cards are numbered: A1-A10. This item contains a total of 12 cards, 10 data cards, an index and one title card. There is also a typed page with handwritten annotations outlining the BAR expeditions from Macumba 1926 to the Australia wide Harvard Adelaide Expedition in 1938-39. This is a complete copy made from the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/6).
  3. Expedition B, Ooldea, South Australia, 1926.
    Cards are numbered: B1-B32. This item contains a total of 33 cards, 32 data cards, 1 title card and 7 small pages of handwritten notes by Birdsell. This is a complete copy made from the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/7).
  4. Expedition C, Macumba, South Australia and Alice Springs, Northern Territory 1926-1927.
    Cards are numbered: C1-C64. This item contains a total of 65 cards, 64 data cards and 1 title card. This is a complete copy made from the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/8).
  5. Expedition D, Koonibba, South Australia, 1928.
    Cards are numbered: D1-D59. The cards: D26-D28, D30, D35-D49, are missing from the Birdsell set but are in the BAR set. This item contains a total of 44 cards, 43 data cards and 1 title card. This is an incomplete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/9). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/1).
  6. Expedition E, Hermannsburg, Northern Territory, 1929.
    Cards are numbered: E1-E100. Card E38 is missing from both the BAR and Birdsell data cards. This item contains a total of 100 cards, 99 data cards and 1 title card. This is an incomplete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/10). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/1).
  7. Expedition to MacDonald Downs, Northern Territory, 1930.
    Cards are numbered: F1-F61. This item contains a total of 62 cards, 61 data cards and 1 title card. This is a complete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/12). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/1).
  8. Expedition to Cockatoo Creek, Northern Territory, 1931.
    Cards are numbered: G1-G80. This item contains a total of 81 cards, 80 data cards and 1 title card. This is a complete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/13). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/2).
  9. Expedition to Mount Liebig, Northern Territory, 1932.
    Cards are numbered: H1-H72. This item contains a total of 73 cards, 72 data cards and 1 title card. This is an incomplete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/14). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/2).
  10. Expedition to Mann Range and Ernabella, South Australia, 1933.
    Cards are numbered: I1-I190. This item contains a total of 191 cards, 190 data cards and 1 title card. This is a complete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/15). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/3).
  11. Expedition to Diamantina, South Australia, 1934.
    Cards are numbered: J1-J49. This item contains a total of 91 cards, 90 data cards and 1 title card. There are two different anthropological cards for each individual. These copies were made from the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/16). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/3).
  12. Expedition to Warburton Range, Western Australia, 1935.
    Cards are numbered: K1-K54. This item contains a total of 109 cards, 108 data cards and 1 title card. There are two different anthropological cards for each individual. This is a complete copy of the original BAR data cards anthropometric (see AA 346/4/17). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/4).
  13. Expedition to The Granites, Northern Territory, 1936.
    Cards are numbered: L1-L46. This item contains a total of 67 cards, 66 data cards and 1 title card. Some individuals have two different anthropological cards. This is a complete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/18). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/4).
  14. Expedition to Nepabunna, South Australia, 1937.
    Cards are numbered: M1-M10. The individual of the subject number M5 was not measured, there is no anthropological card in BAR or the Birdsell data cards. This item contains a total of 19 cards, 18 data cards and 1 title card. This is a complete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/19). Individual subject photographs were taken for the BAR sociological cards. The Birdsell collection contains an incomplete set of sociological photographs (see AA 689/4/1/4).
  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/2-15
Date Range 1923 - 1954, dates in annotations
Quantity 17.5 cm, 14 sets of data cards 20.5 x 12.7 cm in box
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/2-15
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/16

Harvard and Adelaide Universities Expedition, Anthropological Data Cards, with Sociological Photographs attached. 1938-39.

  Anthropological Data Cards recorded in the field containing additional sociological information to the BAR Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition set.
 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
This item contains the anthropological data cards recorded in the field during the Harvard and Adelaide Universities Board for Anthropological Research (BAR, see AA 346) expedition in 1938-1939. This expedition was assigned the symbol 'N.' All individuals recorded within the data cards during the expedition were assigned an individual subject number; the data cards are numbered: N1- N2458.

It is important to note that the Birdsell set of anthropological data cards contains a significant amount of sociological information which was not transferred to the BAR data card set.

The Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition traveled through South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia between April 1938 and June 1939. The expedition was in two parties which had slightly different itineraries. The parties consisted of Norman B Tindale and Dorothy M Tindale (see AA 338), in the other Joseph B Birdsell and Bee G Birdsell.

At the conclusion of the expedition, a copy of the Anthropological data cards were made for the BAR. The BAR copy of the Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition data cards (see AA 346/4/20) are organized numerically by (individual subject) number and ordered by field station.

Birdsell took the original anthropological data cards, along with their accompanying sociological photographs and negatives, back to United States of America. The Birdsell set of data cards were ordered by genetic class according to Birdsell's 1938-39 'Tribal Series' groupings. See: Birdsell, JB 1993, Microevolutionary patterns in Aboriginal Australia: a gradient analysis of clines. Oxford University Press, New York, Appendix A-3. pp.35-36.

On the top right corner of the data card Birdsell has annotated in red pencil the relevant 'B' group. For example '20' denotes the individual as being included in Birdsell's group 'B20 Upper Mitchell Drainage.' The Birdsell data cards have been ordered by genetic class within the regions:

  • B1 south-west Coast
  • B2 south-west Hinterland
  • B3 south-west Interior
  • B4 South Coast
  • B5 Nangatadjara Tribe
  • B6 Mandjindja Tribe
  • B7 Ngadadjara Tribe
  • B8 Southern Hinterland
  • B9 Central Interior
  • B10 Murray Drainage (Lower Murray River)
  • B11 south-east Coast
  • B12 Darling Drainage
  • B13 East Coast
  • B14 north-east Coast
  • B15 Eastern Interior
  • B16 Cardwell Region
  • B17 Ravenshoe Region
  • B18 Cairns Area
  • B19 Kuranda Region [North Queensland]
  • B20 Upper Mitchell Drainage
  • B21 Cooktown Region
  • B22 Gulf of Carpentaria
  • B23 Lower Cape York
  • B24 Upper Cape York

Birdsell also includes individuals into the groups B25 and BNO [Not Observed]. These groups were not included in his published data.

The Anthropological data cards are printed with data fields recording the following information: Place, Date, Observer, Recorder, (the individual's subject) Number, Sex, Child, Adult, Group or Tribe, Name, Birthplace, Rank, Occupation, Kinship with, Father's Group or Tribe, Mother's, Family Number, and also headings for other kin details, and other details including Genetic class, Blood group and Age. The card also includes printed headings and categories for the recording of physical observations and anthropometric measurements numbering to 80. Most cards have JB B[irdsell] recorded as 'Observer' and BG B[irdsell] or DM T[indale] as 'Recorder'[s].

It is important to note that the Birdsell set of anthropological data cards contains sociological information which was not transferred to the BAR set. This information generally includes: place of birth, siblings, marital status, children, occupations, and details on the subject's mother and father's birthplace and or tribal groups. Some of this information was recorded in the BAR data cards, but the transferal of data was both inconsistent and incomplete. This level of varying data differs from card to card.

In the Birdsell set the anthropological data cards have their sociological photographs attached. This photograph consists of two black and white prints, usually a front and profile portrait showing head and torso. The photographs also show the (individual's subject) numbers and place.

A number of individuals were not photographed. In some cases juveniles were photographed with siblings or with one of their parents. Each data card contains information as to whether a photograph was taken, and lists the reel and frames exposed. This data can be cross referenced with other siblings or family members to confirm if siblings are in the same photographic frame.

It should be noted that in the category of 'Family No.' the Birdsell's numbering system, 'A-1', 'M-1' etc., directly relates to Birdsell's 'Australian Genealogies' volumes 1-2 (see AA 689/2/1/1 - 2). The numbering system used in the BAR set (AA 346/4/20) directly relates to Tindale's 'Harvard and Adelaide Universities Anthropological Expedition genealogies' (see AA 346/5/3) which is now located in the BAR collection.

Note that BAR Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition data card set (see AA 346/4/20) only contains the sociological photographs for the 'Old Australian White' Male and Female series [Numbered NW1 - NW 195]. The Birdsell collection contains both sociological photographs and anthropological data cards (see AA 689/9/16/39-40), as well the 'Dorothy Tindale Series' which acted as a control to ensure consistency of adjustment of the measuring instruments.

Further information on the Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition see Birdsell's 'Australian Daily Field Journal 1938-1939' (see AA 689/1/1); Tindale's Expedition Journals (see AA 338/1/15/1-2), supplementary papers (see AA 338/2/34-37). Publications that provide information on the methods and results of the expedition: Tindale, NB 1940, 'Results of the Harvard-Adelaide Universities Anthropological Expedition, 1938-38: Distribution of Aboriginal Tribes: A field survey,' Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 64:1, pp. 140-231. Tindale, NB 1941, 'Results of the Harvard-Adelaide Universities Anthropological Expedition, 1938-1939: Survey of the Haste-Caste Problem in South Australia,' Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australiasia (South Australian Branch), XLII (1941-1941), pp. 66-161. Also Birdsell, JB 1993, Microevolutionary patterns in Aboriginal Australia: a gradient analysis of clines. Oxford University Press, New York.

Note that the data cards contain variant spellings of tribal/language group names. In the descriptions here the various terms and spellings have been reproduced with preferred terms in square brackets. At the end of this series an attempt has been made to supply corresponding tribal/language group names according to standardised spellings adopted by NB Tindale (see AA 338) and AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies); however, this has not been possible in all cases.

Note that language and terms reflect the author's attitude or that of the period in which the item was produced and may be considered inappropriate today in some circumstances.

Each folder contains an index of the sequence of data cards within that folder. A compete digital listing is accessible through the Archives Access Officer. All items include both data cards and photographs unless otherwise indicated by the index.

Birdsell's Harvard and Adelaide Universities expedition Anthropological Data Cards are housed in 40 folders:

  1. 'FB Males,' Areas B1- B4
  2. 'FB Males,' Areas B4- B5
  3. 'FB Males,' Areas B6-B8
  4. 'FB Males,' Areas B9-B12
  5. 'FB Males,' Areas B12-B14
  6. 'FB Males,' Areas B16-B18
  7. 'FB Males,' Areas B19-B20
  8. 'FB Males,' Areas B21-B22
  9. 'FB Males,' Areas B23-B24
  10. 'FB Male,' Areas B25-BNO
  11. 'FB Female,' Areas B1-B6
  12. 'FB Female,' Areas B8-B18
  13. 'FB Female,' Areas B19-BNO
  14. 'FB Juvenile Male,' Areas B1-BNO
  15. 'FB Juvenile Female,' Areas B1-BNO
  16. 'F1 Males,' Areas B1-B12
  17. 'F1 Males,' Areas B13-B25
  18. 'F1 Females,' Areas B1-B14
  19. 'F1 Females,' Areas B1-B25
  20. 'F1 Male and Female Juveniles,' Areas B1-B22
  21. 'F2 Males,' Areas B1-B23
  22. 'F2 Females,' Areas B1-B23
  23. 'F2 Male and Female Juveniles,' Areas B1-B23
  24. 'F3 Male, Female and Juveniles,' Areas B1-B23, and '¼' Males, Females and Juveniles, Areas B1-B25.
  25. '¾ Males,' Areas B1-B25
  26. '¾ Females,' Areas B1-B25
  27. '¾ Males and Females Juveniles,' Areas B1-B23
  28. 'Hybrid Males,' Areas B1-B23
  29. 'Hybrid Males,' Areas B1-BNO
  30. 'Hybrid Females,' Areas B1-B12
  31. 'Hybrid Females,' Areas B1-B23 and 'Hybrid Males and Females Juveniles,' Unsorted.
  32. 'Hybrid (Australian/White) Females Juveniles,' Unsorted.
  33. 'Tasmanian Hybrid Male and Females'
  34. 'Tasmanian Hybrid Juvenile Males and Females'
  35. 'Hybrid (Australian/Various Ethnic Groups) 'F-Xs and F-1s' Males.'
  36. 'Hybrid (Australian/Various Ethnic Groups) 'F-Xs and F-1s' Females'
  37. 'Hybrid (Australian/Various Ethnic Groups) Juvenile Male and Female'
  38. 'FB Melanesian' and 'Non-Aboriginal Hybrids' Males and Females.
  39. 'Old Australian White Males'
  40. 'Old Australian White Females' and 'Dorothy Tindale Series'
  41. Complete Index and notes for Harvard Adelaide Expedition Anthropological Cards.

This series includes references to named groups as listed above. These correspond to:

Tindale Tribes: Araba; Arakwal; Aranda; Badjalang; Badjiri; Balardong; Barara; Batjala; Bindal; Biria; Buluwai; Dainggati; Darambal; Dieri; Djankun; Djiru; Djirubal; Ewamin; Idindji; Jandruwanta; Janjula; Jauraworka; Jiman; Jirandali; Jokula; Jotijota; Kalali; Kalibal; Kalkadunga; Kamilaroi; Kandju; Kangulu; Kanolu; Karingbal; Keramai; Kitabal; Koa; Koamu; Kokata; Kokobididji; Kokobujundji; Kokoimudji; Kokojawa; Kokojelandji; Kokokulunggur; Kokomini; Kokopatun; Kokopera; Kongkandji; Korenggoreng; Kukatja (QLD); Kula; Kunggari; Kurnai; Lardiil; Maikudunu; Maikulan; Maithakari; Maljangapa; Mamu; Maranganji; Maraura; Minjungbal; Mirning; Muluridji; Mutumui; Nangatadjara; Nawagi; Ngaiawang; Ngaro; Ngatjan; Ngemba; Ngundjan; Nguri; Njikena; Nukunu; Olkolo; Pini; Pitjara; Ringaringa; Tagalag; Tjalkadjara; Tjapukai; Ualarai; Wailpi; Wakaman; Wakawaka; Walangama; Wanjiwalku; Wanjuru; Warakamai; Waramanga; Weilwan; Wembawemba; Widi; Wikmunkan; Winduwinda; Wiradjuri; Wirangu; Wongkumara; Wudjari; Wulgurukaba.

  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/16
Date Range 1938 - 1939, dates of expedition
Quantity 166 cm, 41 grey Albox folders
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/16
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/17

The University of California at Los Angeles and University of Adelaide Anthropological Data Cards, 1952-54.

  Anthropological Data Cards recorded in the field with Sociological Photographs attached.
 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
This item contains the anthropological data cards recorded in the field during The University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and University of Adelaide Board for Anthropological Research (BAR, see AA 346) Expedition, 1952-1954. This expedition was assigned the symbol 'R.' All individuals recorded within the data cards during the expedition were assigned an individual subject number; the data cards are numbered: R1-R1885.

The University of California at Los Angeles and University of Adelaide BAR Expedition travelled through South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory between October 1952 and July 1954. The expedition was in two parties which had slightly different itineraries and which met up at Mount Margaret, in Western Australia. In one party were Norman B Tindale and Dorothy M Tindale (see AA 338), in the other Joseph B Birdsell, Ester M Birdsell and Phillip Judd Epling.

At the conclusion of the expedition, a copy of the Anthropological data cards were made for the BAR. Considerably less sociological data was collected on the UCLA Expedition compared to that collected during the Harvard Adelaide Expedition. The BAR copy of the Harvard Adelaide data cards (see AA 346/4/22) are organized numerically by (individual subject) number and ordered by field station, and are a complete copy of the original data cards. Birdsell took the original anthropological data cards, along with their accompanying sociological photographs and negatives, back to United States of America. The Birdsell set of data cards were ordered and the resulting data published in Birdsell, JB 1993, Microevolutionary patterns in Aboriginal Australia: a gradient analysis of clines. Oxford University Press, New York, Appendix A-2. pp.34-35. The data cards have been ordered numerically within Birdsell's 1952-1954 'Tribal Series' grouping. This item comprises of 41 bundles of data cards.

Note that the total number of males, females, juveniles have been counted in each group. For example in 'T-1 Djaru' there are 60 males, 43 females, 19 male juveniles and 43 female juveniles.

Birdsell's 1952-1954 'Tribal Series' grouping
T-1 Djaru [male n=60/ female n=43/ male juvenile n=19/ female juvenile n=43]

T-2 Indjibandi [male n=14/ female n=18/ male juvenile n=6/ female juvenile n=5]

T-3 Karadjari [male n=23/ female n=19/ male juvenile n=1]

T-4 Kartudjara [male n=13/ female n=6/ male juvenile n=6/ female juvenile n=5]

T-5 Kitja [male n=37/ female n=36/ male juvenile n=17/ female juvenile n=20]

T-6 Kokatja [male n=29/ female n=23/ male juvenile n=18/ female juvenile n=21]

T-7 Konejandi [male n=7/ female n=23/ male juvenile n=4/ female juvenile n=2]

T-8 Mandjildjara [male n=28/ female n=22/ male juvenile n=13/ female juvenile n=19]

T-9 Mandjindja [male n=26 female n=7/ male juvenile n=12/ female juvenile n=11]

T-10 Mangala [male n=26/ female n=27/ male juvenile n=14/ female juvenile n=4]

T-11 Nangatadjara [male n=15/ female n=8/ male juvenile n=6/ female juvenile n=9]

T-12 Nangatara [male n=10/ female n=11/ male juvenile n=8/ female juvenile n=6]

T-13 Ngadadjara [male n=23/ female n=30/ male juvenile n=18/ female juvenile n=10]

T-14 Njangamarda [male n=108/ female n=71/ male juvenile n=14/ female juvenile n=10]

T-15 Ngardi [male n=18/ female n=17/ male juvenile n=4/ female juvenile n=3]

T-16 Ngarinjin [male n=14/ female n=15/ male juvenile n=7/ female juvenile n=3]

T-17 Njamal [male n=19/ female n=17/ male juvenile n=5]

T-18 Njikena [male n=18/ female n=14/ male juvenile n=5/ female juvenile n=4]

T-19 Pitjandjara [male n=12/ female n=12/ male juvenile n=11/ female juvenile n=2]

T-20 Punaba [male n=10/ female n=16/ male juvenile n=2]

T-21 Walmadjari [male n=55/ female n=47/ male juvenile n=26/ female juvenile n=21]

T-22 Walpiri [male n=13/ female n=9/ male juvenile n=2/ female juvenile n=1]

T-23 Wandjira [male n=19/ female n=11/ male juvenile n=8/ female juvenile n=3]

T-24 Wanman [male n=35/ female n=47/ male juvenile n=17/ female juvenile n=15]

T-25 Wenambal [male n=31/ female n=38/ male juvenile n=17/ female juvenile n=27]

T-26 Wangkatjunga [Kokatja] [male n=28/ female n=26/ male juvenile n=8/ female juvenile n=13]

T-27 Worora [male n=26/ female n=26/ male juvenile n=5/ female juvenile n=7]

T-28 Wunambal [male n=13/ female n=14/ male juvenile n=1/ female juvenile n=3]

'Small tribes'
T-A Ngalia [male n=8/ female n=1/ male juvenile n=1]

T-B Ola [male n=7/ female n=3]

'Regional pooled series'
P-A Coastal Pilbara: Ngarla; Kariara; Ngaluma [male n=13/ female n=15/ male juvenile n=6/ female juvenile n=1]

P-B Fortescue River: Bailgu; Kurama; Niabali [male n=15/ female n=10/ male juvenile n=6/ female juvenile n=2]

P-C Dampier Land: Baada; Nyulnyul [Njulnjul]; Warwa [male n=24/ female n=20]

P-D Victoria River: Malngin [male n=5/ female n=8]

P-E Arnhem Land: 'Five tribes represented mostly along north coast' [male n=8]
These data cards do not have sociological photographs.

P-F Canning Route: Nana [male n=18/ female n=3

P-G Southern Hinterland: Pitjandjara; Ngalia; Kokatja; Jungkundjara [male n=31/ female n=15/ male juvenile n=12/ female juvenile n=3]

Data cards not included in Birdsell's grouping
Full Bloods not included in the Birdsell's grouping [male n=10/ female n=11/ male juvenile n=2/ female juvenile n=2]

F-1 [Not included in the Birdsell's grouping] [male n=26/ female n=22/ male & female juvenile n=46]

F-2 [Not included in the Birdsell's grouping] [male n=1/ male juvenile n=14/ female juvenile n=10]

'Hybrids' Various (Australian Aboriginal/White) [Not included in the Birdsell's grouping] [male + female + juveniles n=60]

'Hybrids' Various (Australian Aboriginal/Ethnic Backgrounds) [Not included in the Birdsell's grouping] [male + female + juveniles n=47]

The anthropological data cards are titled: 'UCLA - Australian Population Genetics' and contain printed data fields for the recording of the following: Place, Date, Observer, Recorder, (the individual's subject) Number, Sex, Age, Effage, Gen. Key, Name, Birthplace, Own Tribe, Father's [Tribe], Mother's [Tribe], Own Horde, Father's [Horde], Mother's [Horde], and a field for data relating to photographs taken. The card also includes printed headings and categories for the recording of physical observations and anthropometric measurements. The cards have JB B[irdsell] recorded as 'Observer' and EM B[irdsell] as 'Recorder.' Note that the amount of data recorded varies from card to card.

The only differences between the BAR UCLA (see AA 346/4/22) and Birdsell UCLA data card sets (see AA 689/9/17) is the ordering. All data appears to have been transferred from the original to the copy. The level of sociological data recorded was less than that recorded in the Harvard Adelaide anthropological data card series. (see AA 689/9/16).

In the Birdsell set the anthropological data cards have their sociological photographs attached. This photograph consists of two black and white prints, usually a front and profile portrait showing head and torso. The photographs also show the (individual's subject) numbers and place.

This item also contains one box of UCLA sociological cards from which the photographic portraits have been detached. Additional photos such as of physical features or characteristics have been left attached to the sociological cards. Most of these cards contains no photographs. Individuals with the subject numbers K6 and K25 from the BAR expedition to Warburton Range, Western Australian, 1935 are also included in this group.

This item also contains a folder with a handwritten index by Birdsell, listing individuals in tribal grouping (14pp.). A handwritten index of individuals in Birdsell's UCLA 1952-1954 Tribal Grouping: T-1 to P-G. (98pp.), and a handwritten index of individuals not included in the UCLA 1952-1954 'Tribal Grouping.' (13pp.), both of which were compiled in the 1990s by Edna Love.

Further information on the University of California at Los Angeles and University of Adelaide Expedition see Birdsell's 'Australian Daily Field Journal 1953-1954' (AA 689/1/2), Tindale's 'University of Adelaide and University of California Anthropological Expedition, 1952-1954.' volumes 1-4 (AA 338/1/19), Birdsell's 'Australian Genealogies' 1952-1954 volumes 1-3. (see AA 689/2/12) and Tindale's UCLA 1952-1954 Genealogies (see AA 346/5/4) which are located in the BAR collection. Publications that provide information on the methods and results of the expedition see: Birdsell, JB 1993, Microevolutionary patterns in Aboriginal Australia: a gradient analysis of clines. Oxford University Press, New York.

Note that the data cards contain variant spellings of tribal/language group names. In the descriptions here the various terms and spellings have been reproduced with preferred terms in square brackets.At the end of this series an attempt has been made to supply corresponding tribal/language group names according to standardised spellings adopted by NB Tindale (see AA 338) and AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies); however, this has not been possible in all cases.

This series includes references to named groups as listed above. These correspond to:

Tindale Tribes: Antakirinja; Arnga; Baada; Bailgu; Djaberadjabera; Djaru; Djaui; Djugun; Gunwinggu; Indjibandi; Iwaidja; Jangkundjara; Jawuru; Jeidji; Jumu; Kadjerong; Kambure; Karadjari; Kariara; Kartudjara; Keiadjara; Kitja; Koara; Kokata; Kokatja; Konejandi; Korindji; Kurama; Larakia; Malngin; Mandjildjara; Mandjindja; Maung; Miriwung; Miwa; Mutpura; Nana; Nangatadjara; Nangatara; Ngadadjara; Ngaluma; Ngalea; Ngalia; Ngardi; Ngarinjin; Ngarla; Niabali; Nimanburu; Njamal; Njangamarda; Njikena; Njulnjul; Ola; Ongkomi; Pandjima; Pintubi; Pitjandjara; Potidjara; Punaba; Talandji; Tunuvivi; Umede; Wadjari; Walmadjari; Walpiri; Wandjira; Wanman; Warwa; Wardaman; Wenamba; Wenambal; Whadjuk; Wilawila; Wirangu; Wirdinja; Wirngir; Wogait; Worora; Wunambal.

  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/17
Date Range 1952 - 1954, dates in annotations
Quantity 64 cm, 3 Albox boxes and one black folder with index
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/17
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/18

Copies of the Data Cards from the Board for Anthropological Research expedition to Bentinck, Mornington and Forsyth Islands, Queensland, 1960.

 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
This item contains a total of 49 cards; 42 data cards of Bentinck Island people and 6 data cards of Forsyth Island people, all recorded at Mornington Island Mission, Queensland. Cards are numbered: B1-BI42; F1-FI6. One title card contains notes on 'Bentinck Anthropometry' by JB Birdsell. This is a complete copy of the original BAR anthropological data cards (see AA 346/4/23).

  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/18
Date Range June 1960, of expedition
Quantity 1 cm, 1 sets of data cards 20.5 x 12.7 cm
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/18
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/19

Australian Aboriginal Anthropometric Cranial Data Cards

 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED MATERIAL
These item contain 215 morphometric data cards on crania from the collections of:

  • The South Australian Museum.
  • Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Massachusetts.
  • Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington.

Each data cards is titled 'Peabody Museum of Harvard University Cranial Observations and Indices'. These contain the following categories of information: the Catalogue [Registry] Number; Sex; Area; Special Locality; Tribe; Observer; Age and detailed anthropometric measurements. Not all these categories have been filled in. These cards measure 21.5x16.0cm. Each data card has the registry number from their respective institution. Many of the cards are in duplicate, some of which differ slightly in the level of data they possess.

These cards have been ordered by Birdsell into 'Southern' and 'Northern' (Tasmania and Queensland) and 'Northern' types. On the top right hand side of most cards, Birdsell has penciled the letters, these relate to his classifications:
A: Southern
B: Primitive Southerns
C: Northern x Southern
D: Northern

Additional data relating to these data cards can be found in Birdsell Notebooks: 'American Museum of Natural History, July-August 1946' (see AA 679/1/5); 'Comparison of measurements between JB Birdsell's data and other morphometric data' (see AA 689/1/13); and 'Cohuna Skull et. al.' (see AA 689/1/15).

The Birdsell collection contains a set of photographs taken in 1947 (see AA 689/4/5/1 to AA 689/4/5/2) of Australian Aboriginal crania from the South Australian Museum collection.

  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/19
Date Range 1936 - 1941, dates in annotations
Quantity 1 set of data cards measuring 21.5x 16.0 cm
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/19
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/20

Anthropometric Cranial Data Cards - Non-Aboriginal

 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED CONTENT
These item contain 40 morphometric data cards on non-Australian Aboriginal crania from the collections of:

  • Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, USA.
  • Hamburg Museum, Germany.
  • Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA.

These data cards relate to crania from the following peoples and or places:

  • Andaman Island, India.
  • New Britain.
  • Vedda, Sri Lanka.
  • New Caledonia.
  • Duan Island, Torres Straits Islands.
  • Zhovkoutien, China. ['Chou-kou-Tien' crania]
  • Java, Indonesia ['Ngangdong' and 'Wadjak' cranium]

The data cards are entitled 'Peabody Museum of Harvard University-Cranial Observations and Indices'. They contain the following categories of information: the Catalogue [Registry] Number; Sex; Area; Special Locality; Tribe; Observer and Age and detailed morphometric measurements. Not all these categories have been filled in. Each data card has the registry number from their respective institution.

There are a total of 40 cards which comprise of 22 data cards, 1 divider with Birdsell's annotations, 1 index card listing the 'Casts of Early Man at Harvard', 1 blank cranial card differing in format from the other, and a further 15 data cards.

  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/20
Date Range August 1939 - May 1941, dates in annotations
Quantity 1 set of data cards measuring 21.5x 16.0 cm
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/20
Series AA689/09

AA 689/9/21

Photocopy of Walter Edmund Roth's Anthropometric Data, 1898-1900.

 

THIS ITEM CONTAINS RESTRICTED CONTENT
This item is an incomplete photocopy of 'A report to the Under-Secretary, Home [Department] on the Aboriginals of the Pennyfather (Coen) River Districts, and other costal tribes occupying the country between the Batavia & Embley Rivers [visited by the Minister during his last trip] by Walter E Roth NPA [Northern Protector of Aboriginies, see AA 271],' dated 8 January 1900.

This item contains the reports title page (p.418), one page of the report (p.427), a synopsis table of anthropometric measurements (p.428) followed by anthropometric and sociological data charts (pp.513-662) on fifty Australian Aboriginal people, as well as two pages written by NB Tindale (see AA 338) presenting the item to JB Birdsell. There is a total of 155 pages.

Fifty individuals were recorded at the following localities in Queensland: Cooktown, Yarrabah, Bellenden Kerr Mission, Musgrave, Palmer, Mapoon. These individual's locate their birth in the following locations / regions: Johnstone River, Cape Melville, Palm Islands, Charters Towers, Coen, Mareeba, 'Middle Batavia River,' Boggy Creek, Barrow Point, Chillagoe, Herberton, Cape Grafton, Jack River Country, Bloomfield River; Coastal-line between Norman and Mitchell Rivers, Lynd River, Pennyfather River, Mapoon.

There is a corresponding incomplete set of 19 photographs of the indivudals recorded in this research (see AA 689/9/4/3/1/131-149).

  Creator Dr Joseph Benjamin Birdsell
Control AA 689/9/21
Date Range 27 January 1898 - 8 January 1900, dates in annotations
Quantity 1 photocopies bound in green cover, pp.155.
Inventory Identifier AA 689/9/21
Series AA689/09