AA 307  Duncan Stewart  Guide to Records
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Series AA307/01
Manuscript and typescript drafts of 'Aborigines of the Buandik Tribe of the South East of South Australia' and related notes and correspondence
Date Range1857 - 1962
Quantity9 cm, 1 Type 2 archive box
ProvenanceDuncan Stewart
Description

This series comprises Duncan Stewart's original manuscript of 'Aborigines of the Buandik Tribe of the South East of South Australia', probably compiled in the 1870s, and several manuscript and typescript drafts prepared for publication by the Board for Anthropological Research in the 1940s. This series also includes additional notes, letters and other manuscript material by Stewart, and notes, correspondence and other material related to the proposed BAR publication.

ArrangedFormerly Acc. No. 154.

Inventory Listing

AA 307/1

Manuscript and typescript drafts of 'Aborigines of the Buandik Tribe of the South East of South Australia' and related notes and correspondence

 

AA 307/1 comprises Duncan Stewart's original manuscript of 'Aborigines of the Buandik Tribe of the South East of South Australia' and several manuscript and typescript drafts prepared for publication by TD Campbell and JB Cleland for the Board for Anthropological Research in the 1940s. This series also includes additional notes, letters and other manuscript material by Stewart, and notes, correspondence and other material related to the proposed BAR publication.The draft prepared for publication by the BAR was eventually edited by Tom McCourt and Hans Mincham and published in Two notable South Australians by the Beachport branch of the National Trust of South Australia in 1977.

This series comprises the following items:

  1. Stewart's original hand-written manuscript of 'Aborigines of the Buandik Tribe of the South East of South Australia' (no title page, 17 pages). In this manuscript, Stewart defines the territory of the "Buandik tribe' (Bunganditj) as extending along the coast from Beachport to the Glenelg River, and inland about 30 miles (50 km). He refers to several neighbouring groups - the Pinejunga and Mootatunga and the Wichantunga and Tolinjunga. Tindale has suggested that 'Pinejunga' and 'Mootatunga' were alternative names for the Meintangk tribe and that 'Wichantunga' was an alternative term for the Marditjali, a tribe from western Victoria. The identity of the group that Stewart referred to as 'Tolinjunga' is not known. Stewart provides some details of Buandik tribal and totemic organisation, settlement of disputes, ceremonies, burial practices, mythology and population decline after European settlement. The manuscript includes some discussion of events in the early days of European settlement, including a murder of one Aboriginal man by another at Glencoe and conflict between Aboriginal people and pastoralists at Woakwine, Mayura and Lake Bonney. Stewart also obtained some information on the murder, by Aboriginal people, of the crew and passengers of the ship Maria, which was wrecked off the Coorong coast in 1840.
  2. Hand-written draft by TD Campbell of Stewart's original manuscript notes (17 foolscap pages, in pencil).
  3. Typescript draft, in brown paper cover, evidently prepared by TD Campbell in the 1940s. It is labelled on the front cover 'Notes on the Buandik Tribe of the South East of South Australia. The original manuscript notes of Duncan Stewart', with 'correction copy' added in pen. This draft is an edited version of Stewart's original manuscript, prepared for publication by Campbell for the Board for Anthropological Research (BAR). It consists of 36 typed pages, with hand-written corrections. It includes a preface and an introduction which provides some biographical information on Duncan Stewart and his mother, Mrs Christina Smith. As well as editing Stewart's original manuscript, Campbell provided some additional data from Stewart's diaries, notes and other correspondence, including some information on a man named Lankey who died in 1904, said to be 'the last survivor of the Buandik tribe', and another man known as Guichen Bay Jackey, as well as data on the smallpox epidemic that affected Aboriginal people in south-eastern South Australia in the early 19th century and early ship-wrecks in the South-East. Campbell's draft also includes a list of some vocabulary items and the meanings of several Aboriginal place-names including Kalangadoo, Mayurra, Woakwine and Penola. Campbell noted in his introduction that 'the observations contained in this volume have been transcribed from original manuscript notes and letters written by the late Duncan Stewart' and he pointed out that the editorial committee had 'endeavoured to present Stewart's original notes with as little amendment as was reasonably necessary'.
  4. Typescript version of final draft of the Stewart manuscript, edited and prepared by TD Campbell and JB Cleland for publication by the BAR. This appears to be substantially the same as the version prepared by Campbell above.
  5. Photocopy of typescript final draft of the Stewart manuscript, edited and prepared by TD Campbell and JB Cleland for publication by the BAR. The preface and introduction include reproductions of two photographs of Duncan Stewart.
  6. Letter from TD Campbell on 29 January 1962 to 'RS' (evidently the editor of the South-Eastern Times newspaper) concerning publication of the Stewart manuscript. Campbell states that the University of Adelaide has decided not to publish the manuscript that he and Cleland have prepared, and Campbell hopes that the South-Eastern Times may be willing to publish it.
  7. Draft of letter by Stewart to a newspaper editor (no date), providing a list of Aboriginal place-names in the South-East and their meanings. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the letter.
  8. Hand-written note by Stewart providing a list of Aboriginal words. This list was evidently compiled by Stewart in response to a query from someone who was seeking an Aboriginal name for a house on a high hill. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of Stewart's note.
  9. Copy of letter from Stewart to F. Davison on 1 March 1897 providing some details about an Aboriginal man Guichen Bay Jackey, who 'frequented the coast of Rivoli Bay' in the 1850s, when Stewart was still a youth. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the letter.
  10. Page from Stewart's hand-written diary from 30 May to 1 June 1904. On 1 June Stewart recorded that the Border Watch newspaper had reported the death of Lankey, 'the last survivor of the Buandik tribe'. Stewart provides some reminiscences of Lankey, and a brief account of his death and funeral. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the diary entry.
  11. Copy of letter to editor by Stewart transcribed from his 1911 diary referring to the ravages caused by smallpox to the Aboriginal people of the South-East and River Murray in the early days of European settlement. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the above letter.
  12. Page from Stewart's hand-written diary for 1 January 1908, referring to a whaling vessel, the Elisabeth, which ran aground at Rivoli Bay in 1838. According to the Aboriginal people that Stewart spoke to after he arrived in the district in 1846, the whaling crew established friendly relations with the local Aboriginal people. Eventually the crew were able to refloat the vessel and they departed but they left behind trypots and other evidence of their stay there. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the diary entry.
  13. Hand-written notes by Stewart entitled 'Legends', giving some brief details of a myth relating how the Bunganditj obtained fire in ancestral times. This story was first published by Stewart's mother, Christina Smith, in her book The Booandik tribe of South Australian aborigines (Adelaide 1880). This item includes references to the Wichantunga, Tolinjunga, Mootatunga and Pinejunga 'tribes'. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of Stewart's notes.
  14. Hand-written notes by Stewart describing an incident in the late 1840s when an Aboriginal prisoner escaped from the Rivoli Bay police station.This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham.
  15. Hand-written copy of letter from Stewart to the editor of the Register on 23 December 1907 describing an incident near Lake Bonney in the early days of European settlement when a number of Aboriginal people were shot and killed by police after stealing some sheep from a nearby station. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the letter.
  16. Hand-written notes by Campbell, evidently transcribed from Stewart's manuscript material, providing an account of the murder of an Aboriginal woman by her husband, and an account of the murder of eleven members of the 'Wettatongoo' tribe, including an old man and an infant, by white men in retaliation for the spearing of some sheep in the Guichen Bay district. This data was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham.
  17. Copy of hand-written letter to an editor of a newspaper (no date) concerning the naming of Mt Hope in the South-East. Stewart disputes the recent assertion made in a newspaper that the hill was named by Major Mitchell and suggests that it was named by Captain Lipson during a survey of Rivoli Bay. Stewart suggests that the hill was named after the Hope brothers of Geelong who had established a sheep station in the area in 1847.
  18. Letter from David Schulz at Rendelsham to TD Campbell on 17 May 1943, providing Campbell with some information on Guichen Bay Jackey and some transcripts from Stewart's diary. The diary extracts include an account of an Aboriginal sorceror who claimed to be able to acquire songs, dances and white man's goods such as damper and tobacco from the spirits, and an account of Bungunditj burial practices.The information about the sorceror was included in the draft manuscript prepared by Campbell and Cleland and later published by McCourt and Mincham.
  19. Page from Stewart's diary for the period 11-16 October 1883 including the account of the Bunganditj sorceror transcribed by Schulz as above.
  20. Letter from David Schulz at Rendelsham to TD Campbell on 22 August 1945, providing some details on Aboriginal campsites at Bevilaqua Ford, Belt Site, Beachport, Woakwine, Nora Creina and Lake George. Schulz also related some information provided by his father, H. Stewart, about Bunganditj fishing and hunting methods.
  21. Letter from David Schulz at Rendelsham to TD Campbell on 31 August 1945 advising that he has sent some additional diary extracts and notes from Stewart's manuscripts.
  22. Hand-written list by Campbell of Mrs Christina Smith's publications.
  23. Hand-written notes by Campbell providing some biographical details on Duncan Stewart and miscellaneous notes relating to Stewart's manuscripts.
  24. Hand-written lists of Aboriginal words, evidently compiled by Campbell from the Stewart manuscripts.
  25. Typed list by Campbell of some Bunganditj vocabulary items from the Stewart manuscripts.
  26. Typed extract of letter from Stewart at Glencoe to his cousin on 6 February 1857, transcribed by Tom McCourt. Stewart advises his cousin that he has received notice from the government that his services as an interpreter are no longer necessary. Stewart also provides a description of the 'petrified' body of an Aboriginal person in a cave, probably Blanche Cave at Naracoorte. This body was well-known to early residents of the area, but was stolen from the cave in 1861 by a travelling showman. The body was recovered and returned to the cave soon afterwards but it was subsequently stolen again, and was never recovered.
  27. Hand-written notes by Stewart on Aboriginal vocabulary and place-names.
  28. Clipping from an unknown newspaper (30 May 1903) of an article entitled 'Early recollections of Glencoe, Lake Leake, and the South-East' by 'Panangharry'. The writer, who arrived in Rivoli Bay in 1851, provides an account of the early days of European settlement of the district. The writer noted that there were 'a considerable number of blacks about' in those days and provides the names of some of the local Bunganditj people, including Young Man Larry and his sister, Kitty, Paunchy and Old Man Larry. The writer also describes some Bunganditj methods of trapping waterfowl and some Bunganditj weapons and provides a brief account of a corroboree that the white people were invited to attend.
  29. Draft of a letter by Stewart to the editor of a newspaper (no date) concerning the 'coo-ee', which Stewart refers to as an Aboriginal 'signal sound' . Stewart believes that in the South-East the Aboriginal people used the sound 'ki'. Also included is a hand-written transcription by Campbell of the letter.
  30. Letter from Stewart to Miss E Anderson of McLaren Vale on 1 March 1909 providing a list of about 30 Aboriginal words suitable as a name for a residence. Also included is a hand-written transcription of the letter by Campbell.
  31. Clipping from unknown newspaper dated 29 August 1913 reporting the death of Duncan Stewart and providing some biographical details.
  32. Black and white photographic print (13x18 cm), portrait of Duncan Stewart. Photo obtained from the National Trust of South Australia.

This series contains references to the following region of South Australia: River Murray - Coorong; South East.

This series also contains references to: Victoria.

This series includes references to the following named groups: Buandik; Mootatunga; Pinejunga; Wichantunga; Tolinjunga; Wettatongoo.

Corresponding Tindale Tribes: Bunganditj; Marditjali; Meintangk.

Corresponding AIATSIS Language Groups: Buandig; Jardwadjali; Ngarrindjeri.

  Creator Duncan Stewart
Control AA 307/1
Date Range 1857 - 1962
Quantity 9 cm, 1 Type 2 archive box
Formats General Correspondence, Drafts, News Clippings, Loose Notes, Loose Photographic Prints, Photocopied Documents and Diaries
Inventory Identifier AA 307/1
Series AA307/01